The Importance of Steering in a Driving Car

운전연수 A car that drives itself could change our world in major ways, including safer roads and lower transportation costs. But many challenges remain.


When driving, always keep a safe distance between your vehicle and the one in front of you. Follow the 3-second rule: spot a fixed object, like a lamppost, and count how long it takes for your car to reach it.


The steering system of a car allows the driver to change its direction by moving the wheels left and right. It is the most important part of a car because it is used by the driver to control the speed and direction of travel.

This system is used in most cars, and it has many parts that can be damaged if they are not correctly maintained. The most common type of steering system uses a gear called the rack and pinion. The pinion is a gear inside a box, and turning the pinion turns the rack which moves the road wheels left and right.

This system is designed to exquisitely convert the rotary motion of fast-turning tires into linear movement. The pinion meshes with a long linear gear called the rack, and ball bearings that reduce friction and take up slack as the gear turns pass up and down the channel created by the threads of the worm gear.


Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. Students often associate acceleration with speeding up, as in car commercials that proclaim “zero to sixty in six point seven seconds.” But the definition is more subtle than that, since acceleration can also be caused by braking, turning or changing the direction of motion. Acceleration is a vector quantity, meaning it has both magnitude and direction. If an object is speeding up and changing directions, it’s accelerating in the direction of its movement; if it’s slowing down and changing directions, it’s accelerating backward.

A student who accelerates into kindergarten will enter school with more developed physical skills than age-peers, which can make it harder for him or her to fit in socially. This is one reason it’s important to meet with your child’s new teacher ahead of time to discuss any concerns you might have about the transition. Even so, well controlled studies of acceleration indicate that children who are accelerated often develop positive social relationships over time. In some cases, however, social or emotional difficulties occur because of acceleration, which can cause students to question whether or not it was a good idea to skip the grade.


When a driver presses on the brake pedal, a pump located in the engine bay exerts hydraulic pressure that forces hydraulic oil through the brake lines. The calipers then squeeze pairs of brake pads against spinning metal discs (the rotors) attached to each wheel. The resulting friction and heat reduce the vehicle speed to zero, bringing the car to a stop.

The braking system is nearly always more powerful than the engine, which is why it’s important to keep your brakes in good working order. If you brake hard on a low-traction surface, your tires may lock up and stop rotating. In that case, they’ll have only a tiny patch of rubber to grip the road, which isn’t enough to prevent your fleet truck from skidding and possibly jackknifing.

Moreover, hard acceleration and braking put your drivers at risk of rear-end collisions with vehicles traveling ahead of them. Plus, these driving habits can make your fleet vehicles burn more fuel than they should. That increases fleet fuel costs and contributes to harmful air emissions.


Many learners have problems with turning, especially left turns which are often required during a driving test. This is because there are a lot of potential hazards that can occur during a turn that could make it dangerous and also result in the examiner marking a fault on your driving test.

It’s important that you look for the turning at the earliest opportunity to give yourself time to prepare the car, check the mirrors and ensure the road is clear before you turn. This will help to avoid hitting pedestrians, cyclists or other vehicles.

If you approach an intersection where a vehicle is already turning left, then you must yield to this traffic as they have the right-of-way. However, if you’re on a main road where there are no left turn restrictions and you’re the first to reach the junction, then you can turn left. If you’re turning into a driveway, alleyway or private road, you must stop and wait for any oncoming traffic to pass before continuing. This is a legal requirement and must be done correctly for safety reasons.

Lane Changes

When you need to change lanes, always use your blinker and check the rearview and side mirrors to make sure you can safely do so. Also be careful not to overtake vehicles in the lane you are moving into as this may cause them to slow down or speed up and make it difficult for you to move back into your original lane. Check for blind spots as well, and remember to keep a few feet of space between your vehicle and other cars.

In the lane changing scenario, the subject vehicle is traversing in the middle lane of a three-lane highway and decides to change its lane. The driver chooses to move into either the left or the right lane. If the gap in the target lane is acceptable, the driver changes the lane.

The model proposed in this paper includes a longitudinal follow-up and lateral lane change decision module, a car-following and gap acceptance model (GIPPS), a lane-change excitation model (IOVM) and an automatic lane change generalized dynamic model (ALCGDM). It is demonstrated through simulation that ALCGDM and HC-IDM can correctly predict the traffic behavior and the lane-change decision of the subject vehicle in various situations with different driving conditions.